База тестовых заданий
Database of test items is a set of tests that have passed several examinations and testing that have been used or will be used to conduct examinations, monitoring, publications in teaching aids, books-questionnaires trial testing. However, before the test item falls to the database, the National Testing Center performs a complex process consisting of six main stages that use almost all companies in the world, is developing a database of test items for different exams:
Figure1 – The steps of forming the base of test items
For the understanding each of the stages it's needed to elaborate on each.
1. TRAINING, DEVELOPERS AND EXPERTS
The first step of forming the base of test items begins with the training the developers and experts on a special program that is carried out the selection of potential developers and experts who after successfully completing the course will be to develop and carry out tasks on them expertise. Highly qualified teachers and university professors from all regions of Kazakhstan, recommended by the Office of Education and university rectors are involved. Special training is provided in the form of training seminars, which are conducted by the leading experts in the field of educational measurement from different countries. The training program is designed to train teachers on the implementation of the development and examination of tests, evaluation of their quality by means of mathematical models. Acquaint trainees with the existing testology of the forms of tests, types of tests, principles of selection of the maintenance the tests, the procedure of processing of test results. Thus, at this stage, teachers are introduced to the methodological and technical requirements, learning to make the test items, according to the rules testology, receive recommendations for the examination and analysis of the test task.
2. APPROVAL OF TEST SPECIFICATIONS
The second step of forming the base. In the first stage we found and prepared people for the development of databases of test items, and now, in order to apply their knowledge in practice, we need to give them a clear target for action on development. To do this, we create a specification tests for each subject.
To start, it's needed to analyze the concept of "specification". This is document, which contains information about the goals, objectives, plans and structure of the test, and identifies the main requirements to the rules of testing, processing test results and their interpretation.
The structure of the specification may include the following: name of the test, the purpose of development, objectives, content test (test structure, the number of tests for each level of difficulty, the list of topics on which compiled the test items) Test plan (number of test items for each topic listed specification), the characteristic of the content of jobs, the average execution time of tasks, assignments form.
The specification is, in fact, the framework to be followed by the developers and experts of tests, as well as programmers in the formation of variant tests.
Specification performs the following functions:
- Gives developers the necessary tasks benchmarks against which they can be created;
- Allows experts to assess the available jobs for their compliance with the content area test and identify incorrectly designed task;
- Helps to interpret the test results, as clearly and specifically explains that measures the test;
- Gives the student (test user) a clear understanding of the measured knowledge and skills.
Thus, the specification of the test is designed for developers, experts, NTC staff, teachers and students. On this basis, both those who are engaged in the development, and those who work with the already developed tests, are united by a common specification tests.
Specification tests for each school subject is being developed in conjunction with members of the NTC prepared by experts and developers. These documents are created in accordance with the State educational standards and training programs, taking into account all the changes, if any. Further test specifications agreed with the I. Altynsarin National Academy of Education, followed by the approval of MES RK.
3. DEVELOPMENT OF TESTS
After test approval, the development of test items is carried out directly. In the development of test items,the developers aplly materials of textbooks, which are included in the list of textbooks and teaching materials and approved by the MES RK. Particular attention is given to the part of the teaching material on which there are contradictions in textbooks. This material is not used for the development of tests.
Developers design test items clearly instructed where specified format requirements for registration of test items. The development of tests is held in a secret operation in the NTC.
Following the development of tests, the expertise is carried out. Expertise is a review of tests for correct formulation of appropriate curricula and materials, textbooks, during the consideration given appropriate conclusion. All developed test items undergo at least two examinations.
Before the first examination of the NTC employee accepts developers' test items, checking the form of jobs, i.e. compliance with the requirements of this form of test items. After that, test items are allowed to expertise.
The rest of the examination is conducted by the members of the expert committee including highly qualified teachers who have undergone special training.
After each examination carried out remedial work, the purpose of which changes to the test tasks, editing of test items based on the results of examinations.
5. APPROBATION OF TEST ITEMS
After carrying out remedial work generated test versions and carried out their approbation.
The concept of validation comes from the Latin «approbatio» and translated into Russian language means "approval, acceptance." There are different approaches to the definition of the concept, but, in fact, they are reduced to checking the quality of the test tasks in the real world
Approbation is carried out in schools in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The selection of schools is carried out in accordance with their type, location (city, village, capital). More than 10% of graduates (of 4, 9, 11 grades) per year are involved in testing. For pupils this is a good way to see new test items, and for NTC it is a verification of tests on their suitability and "viability".
Approbation of tests is carried out in several stages:
- The organization of work related to the testing, the selection of schools scheduling the testing;
- Conducting testing in schools in the country;
- Processing of the results of testing;
- Analysis of the results.
According to the results of testing the statistical processing of test results and assessed the quality of each test item is carried out. Assessment of the quality of the test item is carried out by means of special programs developed on the basis of mathematical models.
After the approbation it is also performed the correction of tests relied on the comments received during the testing of students and teachers. It can be such comments as not understanding the conditions of the test task, technical error made in the recruitment of tests, etc.
6. REGISTRATION OF TEST ITEMS TO DATABASE
After carrying out corrective work test items are entered into the database of test tasks for use in national examinations and monitoring in the field of education.
Thus, before the test items will appear on the exam, each of them is a serious and painstaking selection.